Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. What is the half life of chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine and nightmares Chloroquine was originally used as an anti-malarial therapeutic. Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine both belong to the quinolone family and share similar clinical indications and side effects, including retinal toxicity. Chloroquine-induced retinal toxicity was first described in 1959 and the retinal toxic effects of hydroxychloroquine were later described in 1967 3, 4. Both drugs are known to be toxic to the mitochondria 3,4. Chloroquine has a relative called hydroxychloroquine Paquenil, that is supposed to be a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine. It is used to treat rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren’s syndrome 5. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Toxicity of chloroquine Chloroquine retinopathy - Wikipedia, Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Toxicity and Recommendations for Screening Allergic to plaquenilWhy is plaquenil so expensiveSplitting plaquenil tabletsChloroquine overdoseHydroxychloroquine urine color The usefulness of hypokalemia as an indicator in the evaluation of chloroquine toxicity was studied in a retrospective series of 191 acute chloroquine poisonings. Results indicated that the risk of severe poisoning and death are proportional to the degree of hypokalemia. Chloroquine Side Effects Common, Severe, Long Term -. A Coronavirus Question Chloroquine After Fluoroquinolones.. Chloroquine C18H26ClN3 - PubChem. Chloroquine phosphate tablets should not be used in these conditions unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risks. Usage in Pregnancy Usage of Chloroquine during pregnancy should be avoided except in the prophylaxis or treatment of malaria when the benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. Retina Manifestations of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity. The classical definition of chloroquine toxicity is characterized by bilateral pigmentary change of the macula usually sparing the fovea. This has come to be known as bull’s-eye maculopathy. The retinal periphery may also be involved but infrequently. Chloroquine is a common antimalarial agent that often results in severe toxicity when taken in overdose. Chloroquine is structurally related to quinine and quinidine, and cardiotoxicity resulting from any of these agents can be indistinguishable. 111 The toxic to therapeutic ratio of chloroquine is low, and ingestions of as little as 300 mg by.