One such commonly used medication for dermatologic and rheumatologic inflammatory conditions is hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), a chloroquine derivative. It is used to treat many diseases including malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Plaquenil screening eye exam Chloroquine nail changes Hydroxychloroquine HCQ has been used for therapy of rheumatologic disorders since the 1950s. Ocular toxicity associated with HCQ use was initially described in the 1960s 1, 2. The incidence of HCQ retinopathy is estimated at 1 % after consumption of HCQ for 5 years. It is marked by paracentral and central scotoma and decreased color vision. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography as an effective screening test for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy the 'flying saucer' sign. Downes SM. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Eye 2017. How to set up a Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy Screening Service. Yusuf IH, Luqmani R, Sharma SM, Downes SM. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy an emerging problem. Eye Lond. 2017;2–6. It is imperative that patients and physicians are aware of and watch for this drug’s ocular side effects. Retinal toxicity from hydroxychloroquine is rare, but even if the medication is discontinued, vision loss may be irreversible and may continue to progress. Downes sm hydroxychloroquine retinopathy Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia, Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy an emerging problem Eye Hydroxychloroquine lupus pregnancyHydroxychloroquine sickle cell The estimated risk of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in patients on chronic hydroxychloroquine therapy ranges from 0.4% to 8.0%. 1 Toxicity is thought to be dependent on cumulative total dose. 3 Additional factors that can precipitate early toxicity are concomitant renal disease and use of tamoxifen. 3. Retina Today - Imaging in Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity.. How to set up a Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy Screening.. What are the side effects of hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil.. Hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity is far more common than previously considered; an overall prevalence of 7.5% was identified in patients taking HCQ for greater than 5 years, rising to almost 20% after 20 years of treatment. This review aims to provide an update on HCQ/CQ retinopathy. We agreed with the conclusions of Latasiewicz et al 1 ‘Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy an emerging problem’, which cited cases of hydroxychloroquine HCQ-induced retinal damage. Three patients had received 400 mg HCQ daily for over 15 years equaling 4.93 mg/kg/day in two and 5.6 mg/kg/day in one and all developed maculopathies of varying severity. Plaquenil hydroxychloroquine is considered an older DMARD disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug. Plaquenil was actually first classified as an antimalarial drug, but it is also used to treat certain rheumatic and autoimmune conditions which are unrelated to malaria.