Treatment of chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria

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  1. Olisher Moderator

    Treatment of chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria


    Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it.

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    In Zambia, chloroquine was used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria until treatment failures led the Ministry of Health to replace it with artemether-lumefantrine in 2003. Specimens from a recent study were analysed to evaluate prevalence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in Nchelenge district a decade after chloroquine use was discontinued. Although statistical analysis was not accomplished, the cure of all five drug-treated animals after the 7–14 day combinational treatment leads one to an obvious conclusion that the combination of chloroquine and tetrandrine with an intact host immune system is an effective treatment of Aotus-infected falciparum malaria if treated for the correct amount of time. Both tetrandrine and chloroquine have been used in man as single entities for years. For P. falciparum infections acquired in areas with chloroquine resistance, four treatment options are available. The first two treatment options are atovaquone-proguanil Malarone or artemether-lumefantrine Coartem.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead.

    Treatment of chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria

    A Molecular Marker for Chloroquine-Resistant Falciparum., Effective treatment with a tetrandrine/chloroquine.

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  6. Chloroquine is used extensively in malaria endemic areas in Africa to treat the uncomplicated form of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the efficiency of chloroquine has been severely impacted by the recent development of chloroquine resistant plasmodium falciparum parasites. The development of chloroquine resistance by malaria parasites is increasing at an alarming rate especially in the tropical countries where it is used extensively as an antimalarial drug 2.

    • Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum - microbewiki.
    • CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States..
    • High-Dose Chloroquine for Treatment of Chloroquine..

    In most parts of the world, P. falciparum is resistant to chloroquine, and the recommended treatment is artemisinin bases combinations. Primaquine should be used in P. vivax and P. ovale malaria for eradicating the persisting liver forms and in P. falciparum malaria to destroy the gametocytes, so as to prevent the spread of infection. Powell rd, brewer gj, alving as. studies on a strain of chloroquine-resistant plasmodium falciparum from colombia, south america. am j trop med hyg. 1963 jul; 9–512. eyles de, hoo cc, warren m, sandosham aa. plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine in cambodia. am j trop med hyg. 1963 nov; 0–843. Chloroquine CQ was Pakistan's first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 1950 to 2007 3. It remains first-line treatment for vivax malaria, so is still used for treating unconfirmed malaria and falciparum infections undetected by microscopy or misdiagnosed as vivax 2.

     
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